Tag Archives: Nat Peeples

Too Little, Too Late

Integration did not come to the Southern Association until a 1954 experiment by Atlanta Crackers owner Earl Mann, when Nat Peeples was inserted as a pinch hitter in the Crackers’ season opener in Mobile. A week later, he was sent down to Jacksonville after appearing in two games and coming to the plate four times.

Reportedly, Mann considered the same action the previous season with a different negro player who was playing in Jacksonville: Henry Aaron. For whatever reason, the future Hall of Famer was not selected and had an outstanding season with the South Atlantic League club.

There was no Southern Association rule that kept rosters segregated. But with teams in New Orleans (the franchise would cease to exist after 1959, replaced by Little Rock), Nashville, Memphis (replaced by Macon after 1960), Birmingham, Atlanta, Shreveport, Mobile, and Chattanooga, civil rights issues were just coming to the forefront of American culture, and integration never occurred.

However, a Birmingham city ordinance prohibited integrated games from taking place on city-owned fields, and Louisiana state law did not allow different races to participate in sporting events together.

One occurence brought attention to the situation: in August of 1960, after six years as the parent organization of the Nashville Volunteers, Cincinnati withdrew its affiliation. Without negro players, said Reds GM Gabe Paul, development of potential players could not properly take place.

In his August 30, 1960 Sports Showcase column, Nashville Tennessean sports writer F. M. Williams quotes Paul on the issue:

“Having a team in the farm system, at Double A level, where Negro players cannot perform creates a void that hinders the entire player development program, he says. Player development is expensive at best, and it becomes even more so when there is one link in the chain that does not help the best young players.”

Williams’ opening lines in his column predict a dim future for the trouble league, emphasizing a rule (unwritten or not) of segregation and acknowledging the tension in race relations:

“If Gabe Paul’s thinking is in line with that of other major league executives, time is running out on Double A baseball.

“Paul took a public stand against the Southern league’s policy of not using Negro players. This is the first time, to my knowledge, that any big league executive has used the racial issue to establish farm policy.

“Eventually it could lead to a Southern boycott.”

On August 31, the Tennessean published an Associated Press story that the American League announced plans to expand to 10 teams by 1962.[1] The National League had previously agreed to absorb up to four teams of the proposed Continental League, but followed suit with an announcement during the World Series that Houston and New York would become members of the league.[2]

nashville-tennessean-08-30-1960-gabe-paul-quote-cincinnati-reds-nashville-vols-08-29-1960If Gabe Paul knew of the plans, which certainly would change the course of developing players, it appears he did not let the directors of the Nashville club know.

Minnesota Twins* farm director Sherry Robertson offered an affiliation proposal to Vols general manager Bill Harbour on January 20, 1961. The agreement was ratified by Nashville board members on February 9.

Vice-President Lyndon Johnson was invited to throw out the first pitch at Sulphur Dell on April 8, and the Southern Association began its final season. Team owners did nothing to integrate the storied league, but waning attendance was the final culprit in its demise.

By season’s end, one of Williams’ predictions had come true, as time ran out on Double A baseball. Nashville drew only 64,450 for the entire season.

Attempts to revive the league went for naught, even though on October 31 a federal judge ruled that Birmingham, Alabama, laws against integrated playing fields were illegal, eliminating the last barrier against integration in the Southern Association.

On January 24, 1962, the Southern Association suspended operations “due to a lack of enough major league working agreements.”

*The original Washington Senators, now relocated to Minneapolis-St. Paul; a new expansion team was set in Washington as a replacement.

[1] Corrigan, Ed. Associated Press. “AL Votes to Expand to 10 Teams by ’62”. Nashville Tennessean, August 31, 1960

[2] McCue, Andy and Thompson, Eric. “Mis-Management 101: The American League Expansion for 1961”. Published in The National Pastime: Endless Seasons: Baseball in Southern California, 2011. Phoenix: Society for American Baseball Research, 42

SOURCES

baseball-reference.com

Nashville Tennessean

newspapers.com

Paper of Record

sabr.org

© 2016 by Skip Nipper. All Rights Reserved.

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I Love Detroit, Lucille Ball, and Carrier. Baseball? Not So Much

The Southern Association of Baseball Clubs was organized in 1900 by Newt Fisher, Charles Frank, and Abner Powell. At a meeting in Birmingham on October 20 of that year, franchises are granted to six cities to begin playing in 1901: Nashville, Chattanooga, Memphis, Shreveport, New Orleans, and Birmingham.

Fisher represented Nashville (his hometown), Powell had played in New Orleans since 1886, and Charles Frank was from Memphis.

Applications for putting a team in the new league were also received from Atlanta, Montgomery, Little Rock, and Mobile. Little Rock and Atlanta were eventually accepted, but in February of 1901 the Atlanta franchise was awarded to Selma.

Thus began the illustrious history of the Southern Association, a league which would last 60 years until folding at the end of the 1961 season. Why would a league fail after surviving two World Wars, the Depression, the Korean Conflict, multiple franchise re-location, and decaying grandstands?

The most obvious explanation is segregation. There was no league rule that anyone has discovered that said teams could not use black players. In 1953, Atlanta experimented with integrating the Crackers by inserting Nat Peeples in a game as a pinch hitter Mobile (the owner of Atlanta, Earl Mann, was not quite brave enough to let Peeples play in Atlanta). The next day Peeples played the entire game, but after a week was sent back down to Jacksonville.

Nashville attendance at Sulphur Dell began to wane in the early 1950s, but the last straw may have come in 1960 when Gabe Paul, Cincinnati Reds vice-president and general manager, announced the Reds six-year working agreement with Nashville would not be renewed. The reason given was the Southern Association “does not allow the use of Negro players”.

Because segregation was a serious topic in southern cities, that could be the reason for minor league baseball teams shutting down. But by 1962, organized minor league baseball is reduced to only 19 teams from a high of 59 teams in 1949 all across the country, not just in the south.

The segregation of teams was not an issue in many other cities (Jacksonville, for example, which has had minor league baseball since 1946). So, what else could be the reason?

LucyThere are three: the automobile, television, and air conditioning.

One-sixth of the work force in the United States worked directly or indirectly in the automobile industry in 1960. The growth of automobile sales could be attributed to the widening of the city limits in a growing nation. It was no longer necessary to live within walking distance of the ballpark; just hop in your new four-door sedan, and a family could be rooting for the home team in a matter of minutes.

That also meant there was another option: Lucy and Desi were on. So were George and Gracie and a host of other stars who made people laugh all from the comfort of home. No need to go sit in the stadium for entertainment. The family couch was just fine.

And it was hot at the ball game. Sunday was when the ball club played double headers. It wasn’t too bad when games were scheduled at night, but at 1 PM for a double header or an evening game in the sweltering heat? The players might have to be there, but spectators did not.

Where it was not hot was at home. Over a million air conditioning units were sold in 1953. Watching “I Love Lucy” in the comfort of one’s own den was a lot more relaxing.

Attendance at Nashville games at Sulphur Dell fell from a record-high of 269,893 in 1948 to 99,271 in 1960. Why head out to the ballpark to root for the Vols when it was a twenty-minute drive and there was a cost to park and it was going to be hot and muggy?

Besides, didn’t “Father(s) Know(s) Best”?

© 2014 by Skip Nipper. All Rights Reserved.

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Nat Peeples and the Feeble Attempt to Integrate the Southern Association

Nat Peeples

Nat Peeples


 

This is a special day in southern baseball history: In 1954 on this day, April 9th, Nat Peeples became the first and only black player in the Southern Association. It would become a token attempt to integrate the league.

Let’s quickly jump ahead a few years: In the Wednesday, September 7, 1960 edition of The Sporting News, Nashville Banner sportswriter George Leonard reported that Gabe Paul, Cincinnati Reds vice-president and general manager, had announced the Reds six-year working agreement with Nashville would not be renewed, effective December 15.

Why would an affiliation that had been amicable and proven to be positive for both clubs be negated? Was it because of low attendance at Sulphur Dell? Was it because the affable Gabe Paul could not get along with management of the Nashville club? Was it because Nashville was a city that did not give the Reds players an opportunity to play in a competitive league?

No, no, and no. The reason given by Paul is because the Southern Association “does not allow the use of Negro players”.

Gabe Paul’s explanation was profound. Whether there was a secret agreement between the clubs or whether no owner would take a stand against segregation is unknown.

On January 24, 1962, the Southern Association suspended operations due to a lack of enough major league working agreements.

The first year of play in the Southern Association was 1901. Nashville won the first two championships, following up with league titles in 1908 and 1916 and ruling the league with six straight championships from 1939–1944.

1948 and 1949 were championship seasons, too.

The Atlanta Crackers won thirteen Southern Association championships, more than any team in the 61 years of the storied league.

Earl Mann owned the Atlanta Crackers. The team had been a member of the league since 1902, and Mann was the face of the club. He scheduled an exhibition game in 1949 that brought in the Brooklyn Dodgers to play his Atlanta ballclub.

“The team and its ballpark were segregated, but in 1949 the Crackers made history when they played against Jackie Robinson and the Brooklyn Dodgers in a three-game exhibition series. The final game on April 10, 1949, drew an all-time Ponce de Leon crowd of 25,221, including 13,885 black fans. The Crackers won one of the three games, and the series marked the first time in Atlanta history that blacks and whites competed against each other in a professional sports event.” – Georgia Encylopedia, Atlanta Crackers Original entry by Tim Darnell, Atlanta, October 19, 2006

A few years later, Earl Mann would lead the charge in an attempt to integrate the Southern Association. The club had an affiliation with the Milwaukee Braves, and two Negro players were considered to play for the Crackers: Hank Aaron and Nat Peeples. The future Hall of Famer Aaron would be called up to the parent club, and Peeples remained with Atlanta after spring training.

On April 9, 1954, outfielder Nat Peeples is sent to the plate as a pinch-hitter for Atlanta in the season opener in Mobile, becoming the first black player in a Southern Association game. Peeples starts the next game and plays the entire nine innings.

“Nat Peeples, an outfielder for the Atlanta Crackers, made history as he broke the color line in the venerable, tradition-rich, class-AA Southern Association. In the Crackers’ opening game of the season against the Mobile Bears in Mobile, Alabama, Peeples batted in the fifth inning as a pinch hitter for pitcher Noel Oquendo. He took the first two offerings for balls and then tapped the third pitch weakly back to the pitcher for an easy out. In the second game of the season, played the next night, Peeples started in left field and batted in the important third spot in the lineup. In four plate appearances Peeples walked once and made routine groundouts in his other three at-bats.

“He did not play in the third and final game of the series in Mobile. The Crackers then returned to Atlanta to open their home season. Peeples had not played in Atlanta’s Ponce de Leon Park when, on April 17, the Crackers optioned him to the Jacksonville Braves of the class-A South Atlantic League. After appearing in only 2 games and without ever hitting the ball out of the infield, Peeples never again played in the Southern Association. He was the first and only Negro to play in the league.” – NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture, Volume 12, Number 2, Spring 2004 Earl Mann, Nat Peeples, and the Failed Attempt of Integration in the Southern Association by Kenneth R. Fenster

Peeples, who was born in Memphis, was sent down to Jacksonville within a week. Although he would play on integrated teams he never made it to the major leagues and would finish his career at Mexico City in the Mexican League after the 1960 season.

Peeples died on August 30, 2012 in Memphis at the age of 86.

© 2014 by Skip Nipper. All Rights Reserved.

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